Similar kind of content is described using different metadata standards and syntaxes
Create groups of four and discuss possible reasons why such situations occurr
*086d $aS 4b
*100 $aHamsun, Knut$d1859-1952
*245 $aSult$cKnut Hamsun
*300 $a147 s.
*440 $aGyldendals 10 store
*500 $a1. utg. KÝbenhavn : Philipsen, 1890
DC.Description="1. utg. KÝbenhavn : Philipsen, 1890"
Coen movie True Grit
"Interoperability is the ability of multiple systems with different
hardware and software platforms, data structures, and interfaces to
exchange data with minimal loss of content and functionality." (NISO)
Everybody should use the same system! :-)
top down approach (MARCsism): "everybody should use MARC", is in theory the optimal solution, but is no longer realistic
To create a new schema from an existing source schema, e.g.:
Solutions based on a (combination of) existing schemas optimized for a specific community. The developers will typically have a bottom-up approach
specifies the mapping of elements, semantics and syntax between different schemas. Very common way of securing interoperability. Two forms of crosswalks, absolute and relative
To map between multiple schemas one of the schemas are used as a switch
Example: Getty's crosswalk where CDWA (Categories for the Description of Works of Art) is used to map between 12 different schemas
Created to provide guidelines for developers of metadata schemas in specific environments. Frameworks can be developed based on existing schemas or prior to any schema has been developed
Example: OAIS reference model
Provide overview of relevant metadata schemas, their elements, syntax, semantics etc to facilitate adoption and reuse of existing schemas in favour of creating new (and redundant) schemas
Example: Dublin Core Metadata Registry
when it's too late for schema level solutions
convert the content of metadata records in one schema into another
This approach is based on combining metadata from various sources in one common format. METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard) and RDF provide two different solutions for this.
<dc:title>The Intellectual Foundation of Information Organization</dc:title>
<dc:creator>Elaine Svenonius</dc:creator> <dc:publisher>MIT Press</dc:publisher>
Metadata repositories that collect metadata from many providers, how do they deal with interoperability issues?
To ensure consistency in multi-collection databases
Elements or values can be the subject of crosswalking
Norwegian example, two repositories and one harvester: